Over the past years, the public’s support for homework has waxed and waned on a fairly regular cycle. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22 2 , , Parents worry that their children have too little homework or too much—and teachers get criticized for both. Cooper’s meta-analysis of seventeen studies measuring such a relationship noted fifty correlations among the studies; “of the 50 correlations, 43 indicated that students who reported spending more time on homework also scored higher on a measure of achievement or attitude” The small number of studies conducted on the impact of homework assigned for different purposes leaves policymakers with little evidence on which to base decisions.
Cooper goes on to explain that homework has both positive and negative effects on various aspects of students’ lives. Information from international assessments shows little relationship between the amount of homework students do and test scores. Similarly, in an examination of parent and student perceptions, Coutts found that homework may take away leisure time and may not be as varied or useful as work done in class. However, it may also be possible that teachers use homework in early grades to establish routines, instill a sense of responsibility, and help students learn time management, rather than for any immediate gains in achievement. The types of homework are further classified by the amount of homework assigned, which includes both frequency, or how often homework is assigned, and length of completion, or time involved to complete homework Cooper a. Regardless of the reason, school leaders and educators need definitive, research-based guidance on the role homework should play in their school systems. The No Child Left Behind Act of NCLB has brought a surge of federal and state funding for out-of-school-time programs that provide academic assistance, such as homework help, for low-performing students.
However, these types of homework are often studied independently.
The amount and type of homework seem to be more important factors for older students. Teacher feedback The teacher’s response to homework assignments is occasionally reported as a factor influencing the impact of homework on achievement or other outcomes.
What is the Purpose of Homework?
Researchers then examined the relationships between those created constructs using 2040 analysis. Bryan, Nelson, and Mathru claim that homework overexposes children to academic duties, decreasing their interest and increasing their physical and emotional fatigue; researchers call this the satiation effect. High-achieving students who have extra resources from home, they say, benefit from homework because they have more opportunities to hoemwork it and often get help with assignments.
Corno and Xu call homework the job of childhood.
What research says about the value of homework: Research review
Other researchers claim that homework helps students develop responsibility and life skills and the ability to manage tasks and that it provides experiential learning, increased motivation, opportunities to learn to cope with difficulties and distractions, and academic benefits Corno and Xu ; Coutts ; Xu and Corno Check that students are able to perform required skills and tasks independently before asking them to complete homework assignments.
Alfie Kohn, a critic of homework, recently wrote, “There was no consistent linear or curvilinear relation between the amount of time spent on homework and the child’s level of academic achievement” Kralovec and Buell note that homework critics rarely question the work assigned but rather the fact that the work is so often performed at home without adult supervision to aid the learning process.
Adding to this hypothesis, Cooper, Lindsay, and Nye found that students whose parents were more involved in their homework had lower test scores and class grades. Today, however, increased demands homeework accountability homeworkk being put on public education. Homework can be further classified by level of interaction, or the social context in which it is completed; that is, independently, by a group of students, or with help from a parent, sibling, or other individual Cooper a.
These findings contribute to the body of research claiming that homework may be detrimental to younger students. How do different groups of students react to homework? Their homewoork, which addressed several concerns regarding the possible effects of students’ age, yielded these findings:. Following the launch of Sputnik, “the homework problem was reconceived as part of a national crisis: She found more time spent doing homework, more help from parents, and more requests for parent involvement from teachers were associated with lower achievement in reading and mathematics.
The homework review was produced by researchers at Edvantia for the Center for Hkmework Education.
Project MUSE – Meanings of Homework and Implications for Practice
However, he concluded that, “with regard to achievement, all eight studies found that homework involving preparation for new material or practice of old material led to higher scores on tests than homework that dealt solely with the content of the present day’s lesson” These factors are the rate of homework completion, the percentage correct on xoutts assignments, and the rate of acquisition of the content being presented.
So, is homework beneficial to students? Little research exists on the impact of homework completed by a student working with one or more other people.
With so many factors influencing homework’s efficacy in learning, staying informed of the research and making the best decisions possible with available data may be the greatest steps hoemwork can take to help ensure student learning in their districts. De Jong and colleagues argue that when students are grouped on the basis of ability, teachers assign more homework to high-performing students than to low-performing students, perhaps because they expect more from the high achievers Burstein For example, in the widely reported tension and conflict in families about homework completion, one contributing factor may be the meanings students, parents, and educators ascribe to homework and the purposes it fulfills.
They do not show that one factor causes another.
Until the mids, homework was viewed as an example of the excessive pressure on students to achieve Cooper et al. Purpose Perhaps the greatest distinction that can be made when discussing homework is its purpose. And Cooper, Robinson, and Patall note that educators claim “a long list of both positive and negative consequences of homework” 6suggesting a need for continued examination of the subject. These findings contribute to the body of research claiming that homework may be detrimental to younger students.
Alfie Kohn, a critic of homework, recently wrote, “There was no consistent linear or curvilinear relation between the amount of time spent on homework and the child’s level of academic achievement” Another study examined the influence of homework, among other variables, on student grades across five ethnic groups: The study did suggest that family involvement might have behavioral benefits, however, such as increased companionship between parents and children and increased awareness on the part of parents of their children’s academic life.
Addressing the question of homework’s effect on student achievement, Cooper a says the majority of the studies that have been examined are correlational, not causal, in nature.