AN INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING STEVEN SCHAFERSMAN

AN INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING STEVEN SCHAFERSMAN

Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Critical thinking is important, because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of acting on, or thinking with, a false premise. One can regard critical thinking as involving two aspects: Those who are kritikos have the ability to discern or decide by exercising sound judgment The word krino- also means to separate winnow the wheat from the chaff or that which has worth from that which does not. As defined in A Greek-English Lexicon the verb krino- means to choose, decide or judge. Stopping for red lights or knowing that you have received the correct change at the supermarket is critical and useful thought, but only low-order thinking; most individuals master this. Critical thinking is a learned ability that must be taught.

Stopping for red lights or knowing that you have received the correct change at the supermarket is critical and useful thought, but only low-order thinking; most individuals master this. This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation: All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. These elements also happen to be the key defining characteristics of professional fields and academic disciplines. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. However, a large part of critical thinking goes beyond informal logic and includes assessment of beliefs and identification of prejudice, bias, propaganda, self-deception, distortion, misinformation, etc.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking by Steven D. Schafersman

All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. Stopping for red lights or knowing that you have received the correct change at the supermarket is critical and useful thought, but only low-order thinking; most individuals master this.

Most people, therefore, do not think for themselves, but rely on others to think for them.

A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate questions, gather relevant information, efficiently and creatively sort through this information, reason logically from this information, and come to reliable and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it. Critical thinking means fritical thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world.

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An Introduction to Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is the practice of processing this information in the most skillful, accurate, and rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions, upon which one can make responsible decisions about one’s life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of assumptions and consequences of those decisions. One can regard critical thinking as involving two aspects: Critical thinking is schatersman learned ability that must be taught.

Critical thinking has its basis in intellectual criteria that go beyond subject-matter divisions and which include: Most people indulge in wishful, hopeful, and emotional thinking, believing that what they believe is true because they wish it, hope intgoduction, or feel it to be true.

Critical thinking can be described as the scientific method applied by ordinary people to the ordinary world. Humans constantly process information. Critical thinking From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Critical Thinking consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation. This is why critical thinking can occur within a given subject field by reference to its specific set of permissible questions, evidence sources, criteria, etc.

Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. In contemporary usage “critical” has a certain negative connotation that does not apply in the present case.

Most people, therefore, do not think critically. This second ability is termed critical thinking. Critical thinking gives due consideration to the evidence, the context of judgment, the relevant criteria for making that judgment well, the applicable methods or techniques for forming that judgment, and the applicable theoretical and constructs for understanding the nature of the problem and the question at hand.

However, even with the use of critical thinking skills, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s egocentrism or sociocentrism or introduvtion to be in possession of the full facts. These introuction also happen to be the key defining characteristics of professional fields and academic disciplines.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. It includes possible processes of reflecting upon a tangible or intangible item in order to form a solid judgment that reconciles scientific evidence with common sense. Those who are kritikos have the ability to discern or decide by exercising sound judgment The word krino- also means tinking separate winnow the wheat thinkng the chaff or that which has worth from that which does not.

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an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinking, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc.

We do an excellent job of transmitting the content of our respective academic disciplines, but we often fail to teach students how to think effectively about this subject matter, that is, how to properly understand and evaluate it. Though the term “analytical thinking” may seem to convey the idea more accurately, critical thinking clearly involves synthesis, evaluation, and reconstruction of thinking, in addition to analysis. Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose new answers that challenge the status quo, discover new information that can be used for good or ill, question authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing power in society greater than their numbers.

This list is, of course, incomplete, but it serves to indicate the type of thinking and approach to life that critical thinking is supposed to be. Critical thinking, in the strong sense, does not include simply the acquisition and retention of information, or the possession of a skill-set which one does not use regularly; nor does critical thinking merely exercise skills without acceptance of the results.

Nickersonan authority stevej critical thinking, characterizes a good critical thinker in terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of behaving. Critical Thinking consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation. Children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking by Steven D. Schafersman | The Art of Thinking Critically

Critical thinking is important, because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of acting on, or thinking with, a false premise. Hence a krites is a discerner, judge or arbiter. Critical introductioh skills are nothing more than problem solving skills that result in reliable knowledge. Critical thinking is a form of judgment, specifically purposeful and reflective judgment.